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End User Development
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The End User Development get to evolve as an essential software technology trend that gets to introduce the full participation of the end users in developing systems and application or in the cases of getting to do some modification to the already existing application or system. The end users, in this case, get to define the non-professional software developers who have the expertise in the working domain of the system under development or the application to get modified. According to Lieberman, Paterno & Wulf (2006), End User Development gets defined as the set of applicable methods, tools, and techniques applied by the end users of an application and system in the development, design, modification, creation, and the extension of any given software within a given environment. The end users of the software system define the non-professional system developers. Fisher & Girgensohn (1990) introduced the end-user modifiability in the design environments for the easy construction of the artifacts that gets to provide the sense of getting systems modified.
Previously, systems have been in development but they got to experience some challenges. The system could get developed but on the implementation of the application; the system gets not to meet the requirements of the end users and at the same time most projects got to fail as they got finished outside the scheduled time. The actions got the necessity to get the determination of the trends within the software development technology to have the creation of the software with the inclusion of the end users. The application of the End User Development technology gets to have the full participation of the end user of the system especially the modification and the extension of an existing system. The approach of End User Development is crucial since the end user has the expertise in the application of the system and can easily tell the functionalities of the system. On the same point, in the case of automation, the end user must just get involved in the process, and all that will be the implementation and the application of the End User Development approach. In most system development models, the end users get involved in the development of the system during the process of defining the requirements the move to the other stages gets the working of the project managers and the technical team that consist of the system development professions. The End User Development approach gets to have the participation of the end users in the life cycle of the application and system developed.
End User Development Motivation
The motivation behind the application of the End User Development technology defines the system professional developers get to miss the domain knowledge of recognizing and understanding that the non-professional system developers can easily take part in the communication of the requirements for the new system to get developed. The issue gets to arise with the application of the traditional model of system development; the development cycles gets to move at a lower rate with the changing requirements of the end user. We remind ourselves of the non-professional system developer’s lack of training pertaining the professional system development skills and get to have the recurring of activities that get to render the traditional system development approach not applicable for End User Development. Therefore, the End User Development gets to apply its life cycle of developing applications and systems.
End-User Development Life Cycle
The system development with the application of the End User Development approach gets the combination of the business managers and the end users to participate in the accomplishment of developing the application. The life cycle of the End User Development approach gets to involve six phases of project definition, requirement definition, design, coding, testing, and implementation as per the Railroad Retirement Board (RRB) (2003) report. The report provides the necessity for the undertaking of the projects using the End User Development approach with the follow of the standardized system development life cycle.
Project definition phase gets to provide the identification of the problem within the organization and the necessity to get the computer program changed or upgraded to a given level. The project definition, therefore, gets to provide the plan for the system to get developed with the application of the End User Development approach. Requirement definition gets to involve the undertaking of investigation or rather feasibility study about the problem to get solved that is the system to get developed. During the requirement definition phase remember the end user get to take the most of the attention and thus resulting in the determination of the system requirements and functionalities. The design code gets to the provision of the technical architecture of the system through the development of the system prototype that gets to simulate the actual functionalities of the system under development. The phase gets to provide a guide during the coding phase. The coding phase for the system will get the end users to use specialized tools to take part in the development or coding for the computer system programs in the collaboration with the professional system programmers. The end users need not have the training or any knowledge about the system programming concepts instead the participant will get to apply the special programming tools for non-programming professionals. The testing once more will take through the verification of the system meeting the defined requirements and the functionalities as predefined in the previous phase. The process gets to involve the end users fully with the application of the testing data provided according to their needs. The testing will pave the way for the implementation phase that gets to provide the mechanism for deploying the developed system. The process won’t require the end user training because they have had through the whole process of developing the application. The maintenance of the system can get done slightly by the end users because of the components that get to exist within the system and got developed by them.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Applying End User Development Approach
The application of the end user approach in the development of system within a given organization gets to pose some significant benefits that get the organization management and project team to smile. The End User Development approach gets to provide the application that is at the highest level of acceptance by the end users. The end users will get to have the acceptance of the application since they have taken part in the system development. During the development of any application that gets to follow the system development life cycle, the application of the End User Development gets to reduce the problems related to the communication between the information system developers and the end users of the application. The participation of the end users dopes provides the easy and early start of interacting with the professional system developers. Therefore, the issues related to the communication get reduced stealthily for the achievement of the quality application. The End User Development approach of developing system gets to promote innovations and creativity to the provision of solutions to the identified problems. The end users are the final persons that get to interact with the application and will get to determine to some possible solution to the problems they experience, and the basic sharing of ideas gets to provide the basis for drawing some nice ideas that result in the promotion of innovations and creativity. Also, the approach gets to fasten the development of the system with the rush through some given phases such as the implementation cycle of the system will get the shortest time possible. It is because the end-users won’t require the training for the operation of the system and the testing of the system gets to exclude some tests or gets to less involvement in the system testing modes. The End User Development approach is the key to the automation of the system. The tailoring of the applications and system gets to have the better support in the making the system automated based on the end user wishes and needs.
On the other hand, the application of the End User Development approach in the development of the system within the organization gets to pose the deficit of having wasted the resources during the process of developing a system. The inclusion of the end-users in the development process will require them to get allocated some resources. The point is with or without the project still gets achieved once the end users requirements get defined accordingly during the analysis phase of the application development. The addition of some other participates will get to require more resources thus getting the cost of developing the system within the organization using the End User Development approach gets to increase the cost of developing the application. The application of the End User Development approach gets the professional system developers to lose the control over data related to the system under development. The compromise of the data will get the design and development of poor quality programs since the unknowledgeable programmers (end users) gets to apply some tools for their participation during the coding of the system. The professionals get to lose the control over the quality of the programs, and this gets to have the development of narrow and inflexible systems and applications that get to have short lives.
The application of the End User Development approach has not yet enrooted with the reason being the most organization, firms and individuals get to apply the traditional model of developing applications at the same time the developed of any application or system should get done at the possible minimal costs. The End User Development gets to require the introduction of more resources to cater for the end users which gets to have the system development process higher. The approach is essential to the undertaking of some projects such as the system automation and the requirement of not taking the risk to fail to meet the requirements and the basic involvement of all stakeholders in the system and development.
Fischer, G. & Girgensohn, A. (1990). “End-user modifiability in design environments,” in Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI '90), pp. 183–192.
Kulzick, S. R. (2000). End-User Development Advantages and Disadvantages.
Sherry Roberts is the author of this paper. A senior editor at Melda Research in buy essay online if you need a similar paper you can place your order for a custom research paper from Online Essay Writing Services.
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