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Borrego, M., Douglas, E. P., & Amelink, C. T. (2009). Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed research methods in engineering education. Journal of Engineering Education, 98(1), 53-66.
Borrego, Douglas & Amelink (2009) conducted a research review to open dialog about qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research techniques as used in engineering education research. The authors argue that the choice of the most suitable technique must be driven by the research questions. For the three approaches, the authors offer a definition, aims, suitable research questions, evaluation method, as well as different examples from the Journal of Engineering Education. A combination of texts from social sciences has been used as the point of reference. Examples are derived from Journal of Engineering Education as a scholarly journal. The authors also offer findings from a prestigious international conference on engineering education research. According to the results, participants were more inclined towards quantitative methods and expressed low satisfaction in the poor representation of qualitative research. The most preferred quantitative method was the classroom-based experiments. The authors note that formation of a paradigm is important as it aids researchers in building their discipline. Researchers, therefore, should negotiate input from both quantitative and qualitative techniques. Their position is that no particular research design is privileged over the other.
Brehm, J. W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. Oxford, England: Academic Press.
According to the theory, individuals have certain freedom with regard to behavior. In the case their behavior freedom is reduced or threatened with reduction, an individual is motivationally aroused to recover them. Accordingly, reactance is the motivational reaction to rules, offers, regulations and persons that eliminate or threaten particular behavioral freedoms. Threatening involves is the feeling that something or someone is limiting the range of alternatives or taking away their choices. The pressure causes the individual to strengthen an attitude or view to adopting that which is contrary to what was intended. Since reactance is a motivational state, it is characterized by energizing properties that compel people to be involved in freedom-restoration conducts. They may try to reassert the freedom through engaging in the behavior threatened with elimination. They may also have others restore the threatened freedom. Other times, they may derogate the aggressor toward the threatening agent when the threat is illegitimate. Individuals may instead increase the attractiveness of the denied option or subjectively decrease the attractiveness of the imposed alternative when a freedom cannot be directly restored. According to Brehm (1966), one of the least obvious implications of the theory is the choice between two attractive alternatives.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005). Emotional intelligence for leadership performance. Journal of General Management, 30(3), 71-86.
Dulewicz & Dulewicz (2005) demonstrate the importance of emotional intelligence for leadership performance. According to the authors, emotional intelligence is the ability to recognize and express emotion to understand, stimulate thought and reason. Emotional intelligence regulates emotion in a leader as well as others. Emotional intelligence enables leaders to grasp intuitively what followers need and want and develop plan s to fulfilling those needs and wants. The authors explore the relationship between emotional intelligence and leadership and emphasize the importance of emotional intelligence in the organizational context. This is particularly important in the new world that is characterized by a speedy rate of change, including the impact of technology, changes in the work force, globalization and industrialization. Today, individuals need to function in the world significantly different from that of previous generations. Leaders with high emotional intelligence are likely to obtain better results from organization’s employees beyond expectations. This is important in the employee development as using talents is vital for organizational effectiveness. The authors advocate the importance of leaders developing emotional intelligence to effectively express, perceive, manage and understand their emotions and the emotions of others in a productive and positive manner. Leadership competencies depend on many factors including emotional intelligence.
Elger, D. (n.d.). Theory of performance. Expectations of Faculty in Higher Education, pp. 11-14. Retrieved from http://www.webpages.uidaho.edu/ele/scholars/Results/Workshops Facilitators_Institute/Theory%20of%20Performance.pdf
Elger (n.d.) discusses the Theory of Performance as relates to six foundational concepts that form a framework that is important in explaining performance and performance improvements. According to the author, to perform is to produce valued results. Developing performance is a process that involves a different level of performance. The author discusses different levels of performance which depend on 6 components. These components include levels of skills, context, the level of knowledge, personal factors, the level of identity and fixed factors. Three approaches are proposed for effective performance improvements. They involve engagement in reflective practice, immersion in an enriching environment and a performer’s mindset. The traditional Contexts involve learning in workshops, classrooms, and other venues that are traditionally associated with learning. The non-traditional Contexts involve learning in contexts that cannot be traditionally conceptualized as learning environments such as self-development, academic advising, departments, professional research groups, academic committees, and colleges. Organizational Learning involves learning through examining the “level of performance” of the organization. It takes a complex series actions to produce a valuable result.
Kaplan, R. S. (2009). Measuring performance (Pocket Mentor): Expert solutions to everyday challenges. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business Review Press.
According to Kaplan, (2009), it is important for organizations to track the changes in their overall performance. Individuals, units, divisions and teams within the organizations should engage in similar success measurement. Performance Measurement gives details on the importance of regularly monitoring group's performance. It also introduces standard measurement practices. Managers should understand the importance of using a disciplined process to performance measurement through setting targets and communicating data effectively. The author recommends the use of management as a coaching and development tool. The Pocket Mentor provides different solutions to what managers face on the daily management tasks in organizations. The Pocket Mentor is comprised of several books that form a series. They are all packed with important self-tests, tools, and real-life examples to help managers identify strengths and weaknesses and improve critical skills. Whether managers are new in organizations or experienced in their field of work, they are faced with different challenges. These challenges range from one industry and organization. However, all Managers should understand the importance of using a disciplined process to performance measurement
Lewin, K., White, R. K. & Lippitt, R., (1939). Patterns of aggressive behavior in experimentally created 'social climates.' The Journal of Social Psychology, 10271-299. doi:10.1080/00224545.1939.9713366
Lewin et al., (1939), demonstrate that societal psychology makes an exceptional contribution to the study of change. Through a focus on the 'contextual politics' of change, it examines the different interests at stake within any social context. Societal psychology investigates the contexts that inhibit or promote societal or social change. They can be seen as a bridge between political and social psychology. Through a focus on how the context, it defines how societal change is understood, resisted or supported. To recognize the intellectual foundation of societal psychology, and how it aims to promote societal change, the authors first consider the history of the societal psychology. Next, they consider what is meant by 'context,' as understanding the environment of change is important in societal psychology. They also lay out three different features of a societal, psychological approach to change: interventions and planned change; the politics of change and emergent change processes. Finally, they examine societal psychology’s role in understanding and creating societal change possible.
McCauley, C. D. (2005). Stress and the Eye of the Beholder. Leadership in Action, 25(1), 3-7.
McCauley (2005) note that it is a challenging and rewarding task for a person to be flooded with stress and anxiety for others. According to the author, how an individual appraises self and situation makes all the difference. In this article, stress is a result of complex interaction between a person and the environment. According to the author, Psychological stress is caused by a particular relationship between an individual and his environment that is evaluated by the individual as exceeding and taxing their resources and endangering their well-being.” How an individual appraises the situation is the most important factor. In making the appraisal, an individual answers different questions. Important to the appraisal is the apparent existence of challenge, which can decrease the stressfulness of a situation. The author uses different cases to demonstrate the concept. Another factor impacting the evaluation of a situation as challenging is the anticipated benefits. People are more likely to identify a demanding situation as challenging if they anticipate positive outcomes.
McFadden, C., Beck-Frazier, S. & McGlone, J. (2005). Major approaches to the study of leadership. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 9(2), 25. Retrieved from https://www. questia.com/library/journal/1G1-136071081/major-approaches-to-the-study-of-leadership
According to McFadden et al., (2005), the study of leadership is a popular topic since researchers recognized the effect of leadership on the success of an organization. In higher education, leadership studies have played an essential part in the expansion of educational leadership programs. The authors synthesize the literature on the major approaches important to the study of leadership. The authors use different theories in explaining leadership contexts. Trait theory is discussed as one that attempts to recognize specific personal characteristics that are important in explaining why particular individuals succeed in leadership positions while others fail. The theory was largely used in the 20th century and was referred to as the Great Man Theory of Leadership. Power and influence theory focused on the use of power by leaders. Behavioral Theories focused not on personal characteristics rather on what leaders actually do. Cultural and Symbolic Theories is a perspective that represents a shift in thinking about leadership. Organizational Theory focuses on perspectives of viewing the organizations.
Nekliudov, E. (2011). Urals factory in the nineteenth century. Russian Studies in History, 50(2), 33-57.
This article by Nekliudov, (2011) examines owners of metallurgical plants in the Urals in the first half of the nineteenth century. The Urals is Russia’s major metallurgical region. The period represents one of the least-studied periods. It recognizes the unique features and outcomes that affected influenced the performance of the factories. These factors include basic ownership and management functions since that most owners could not evidently cope with evolving issues of economic development. Although state treasury and factory owners made different efforts to extricate themselves, the results were also less than effective. A new paradigm in the humanities emphasized an anthropological approach that marked the end of the twentieth century. An analysis of literature demonstrates that the characteristics and roles of factory owners during the particular period remain indistinct to this day. An overview of the owners shows that the group included 324 people from thirty-one lineages from 1800 to 1861period. Also, the number of factory owners in the first decades was higher compared to that in the Urals during the entire eighteenth century.
Oyinlade, A. O. (2006). A method of assessing leadership effectiveness: Introducing the essential behavioral leadership qualities approach. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 19(1), 25-40.
According to Oyinlade (2006), assessing the effectiveness of a leader is a challenging task for many organizations. Te major reason is that most assessment procedures are influenced impacted by standards, organizational politics or the undefined or poorly defined items on which leaders are assessed. The study conducted utilizes the EBLQ or Essential Behavioral Leadership Qualities approach in assessing leadership effectiveness as a substitute technique to use in assessment procedures. The EBLQ technique is utilized on the assumptions that a leader should be assessed on clearly defined behavioral qualities while effectiveness rating used should be standard based among other assumptions. Therefore, the EBLQ method assesses leaders’ effectiveness against the standard levels of behaviors viewed important for effective leadership. Overall leadership performance and each leadership behavior form the basis for determining Leadership effectiveness. The approach was first demonstrated in the measurement of leadership effectiveness of the principals of schools in blind or visually impaired schools. The study takes into account the increasing global demand for competitive organizations.
Poister, T. Aristigueta, M. & Hall, J. (2014). Measuring performance in nonprofit organizations: An integrated approach (2nd ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The authors discuss the performance of management and how managers should develop effective performance management systems. The authors also develop a performance framework using performance measures and program logic models. Once the programs intended incomes and performance criteria have been identified, managers should develop useful performance indicators. The authors discuss the characteristics of effective performance measures that can be utilized by an organization in evaluations. The first chapter discusses monitoring systems that can be used to convey meaningful information on program performance. The measures used should appropriate and meet the tests of sound measurement principles. It defines measures of efficiency, effectiveness, productivity, quality and client satisfaction that are considered to be reliable, valid and useful. The book also discusses the challenges of measurement issues may be useful to picture the statistical and numerical forms in which performance indicators can be specified. The most common statistical formats are ratios, percentages, raw numbers, indices, and rates. Local pollution programs and juvenile correction centers are used as examples of nonprofit organizations
Rosete, D., & Ciarrochi, J. (2005). Emotional intelligence and its relationship to workplace performance outcomes of leadership effectiveness. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 26(5), 388-399. doi:10.1108/01437730510607871
Rosete & Ciarrochi (2005) conduct the study to investigate the relationship between cognitive intelligence, emotional intelligence, personality and leadership effectiveness. A sample of 41 senior executives (n=41) was used to measure Emotional Intelligence, a measure of cognitive ability and a measure of personality. The Wechsler abbreviated scale of intelligence was used in the measurement of these factors. The authors assessed leadership effectiveness using an objective measure of performance. A 360° assessment where (n=149) was also used and involved the direct manager and each leader's subordinates. The findings demonstrate that higher emotional intelligence was associated higher leadership effectiveness. Regression and Correlation analyzes were used to explain the variance not explained by either IQ or personality. The paper establishes an association between emotional intelligence and workplace measures of leadership effectiveness. While there are different researches conducted on the emotional intelligence, most are based on managerial self-reported data. Most researchers do not account for the relative objectivity that arises from the self-report measure of Emotional Intelligence. The researchers take this factor into consideration when conducting the research study.
Stout, M., & Staton, C. M. (2011). The ontology of process philosophy in Follett's administrative theory. Administrative Theory & Praxis (M.E. Sharpe), 33(2), 268-292. doi:10.2753/ATP1084-1806330206
According to Stout& Staton, (2011), ontology is important to different fields. Its importance is emerging in a range of fields linked to political theory such as public administration. The authors explore the ontological structures of Follett's theory of governance, including administrative and political theory. The examination of similarities between Whitehead's process philosophy and Follett's concepts resulted in the discovery. The authors note that they were, in fact, contemporaries who equally influenced each other’s work. However, Whitehead focused on the physical while Follett focused on the social. The authors interpret and analyze the key principles advanced by the two. They find a shared ontology that becomes as a relational process. The difference is related but unique, and the purpose becomes a harmonizing difference. The concepts portend a political form that can be referred to as Follettian governance that facilitates the way of living together. It is only possible through a relational process of becoming exceptional individuals, jointly engaged in a continuing process of harmonizing differences through intertwined networks.
Valentinov, V. (2011). The theory of Radhamakal Mukerjee: Lessons for modern nonprofit economics. Journal of Economic Issues (M.E. Sharpe Inc.), 45(3), 605-620. doi:10.2753/JEI0021-3624450305
Valentinov (2011) examines how the institutional economics of Radhamakal Mukerjee can be applicable to modern nonprofit sectors. The author incorporates a brief survey of Mukerjee's work and highlights important elements of his theory that provides useful implications of understanding the nonprofit sector. The Mukerjee's theory implies than non profits main role is to aid the economy in better accommodating better accommodate broader societal values and not simply addressing market failure. Mukerjee's theory also suggests that nonprofit sectors avail an institutional structure for the search of common interests that cannot be reduced to individual utility maximization. Mukerjee considers the state to be intrinsically coercive. Hence, the nonprofit sector is the only meaningful outlet for citizenship behavior that can advance the original theory of corresponding state nonprofit association. Given the pressure of nonprofits to adopt business-like processes, the author discusses these ideologies in depth to determine if the changing nonprofit ideologies may require a change in ideologies. The author calls for more research on the economics of the nonprofits.
Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and motivation. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
The book discusses the relationship between individual motivation and work performance. The author critically examines empirical evidence on such questions as what factors influence employee satisfaction and why people choose particular jobs or occupations. The author proposes a theoretical framework expectancy theory for organizing and understanding the existing evidence. Expectancy theory assumes that behavior is a variable of conscious choices among alternatives. The purpose of choice is to minimize pain and maximize pleasure. The author notes that employee's performance is a factor of individual elements such as skills, personality, experience, knowledge, and abilities. He states that performance, effort and motivation are associated to motivation. Vroom (1964) uses Instrumentality, Expectancy and Valence as variables. He notes that people are willing to work towards a higher level of performance due to the perceived correlation between rewards and performance. Thus, the level of performance is based on the strength of the association between an individual’s behavior and rewards that result from the work. The author recommends the use of assessment to measure how valuable employee finds the rewards to be.
Wren, J. T. (1995). The companion; Leadership through the ages. New York: Free Press.
The book aims to fulfill the promise of an approach to leadership that has been widely conceived. The author draws from a wide range of sources including seminar articles from leadership scholars, leadership that is broadly conceived, the wisdom of leaders and insights from observers to expand the frontier of leadership. The author guides the reader by suggesting some profitable ways to think about the topic. He explores the concept of leadership and defines terms and how individuals might learn about leadership. Insights from classical philosophers, practitioners and literary agents on leadership have been discussed. The author also uses some of the current writings on the important elements of leadership process including leadership environment, followers and the leader and how they interact. The issues on how diversity, gender, and multiculturalism influence leadership form an important section of this book. Part five looks at how leaders and followers work in collaboration to attain mutual goals. Part 6 considers the competencies necessary for effective leadership practice.
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